In the last two blogs we discussed the mythological conflict of Good vs. Evil as a paradigm of the human conception of the universe especially as expounded by Zarathustra and reinterpreted by Friedrich Nietzsche.

Professor Francis Ambrosio in his course Philosophy, Religion, and the Meaning of Lifelooks more closely at the position of humanity in this arena and proposes two timeless means to personal meaning: the role of the saint and the role of the hero. In that context he sees Nietzsche as a tragic hero, who self-identifies as the antichrist, but is in fact a misunderstood and unappreciated proponent of secular humanism, proposing “the ideal, not of oppressive domination of others, but rather of mastery over the self.”

So where does all of this leave modern man in defining his place in this mythic conflict? The answer recurs throughout literature whether sacred or historical:

One who does good is never overcome by evil.”  Bhagavad Gita, 6:40.

“Do evil to no man; work for the common good.” –  Cicero

“Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.” – St. Paul, Romans 12:21.

“The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” – Edmund Burke, 18th century British politician and supporter of the colonies.

“The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything.” – Albert Einstein

These varied sources tell us the best way to defeat evil and perhaps more importantly to separate oneself from evil is to be a force for good. So returning to Frankena’s principles in the chapter on societal ethics; if our primary obligation is first not to commit evil actions and next to try to reduce evil, and our secondary obligation is to promote good, human history suggests commitment to doing good is the means to both defeat evil and transcend it.

Nietzsche shows us that self-mastery, rigorous analysis of ethical norms, and acceptance of and participation in the real world are necessary to success. Professor Ambrosio refines the human struggle; to defeat Evil and promote Good is done through the selfless courage of the hero and the personal sacrifice of the saint. I think Zarathustra and Nietzsche would agree that they are the uberman.

1Ambrosio, Francis J., Philosophy, Religion, and the Meaning of Life. 2009, The Great Courses.

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In Part I, we discussed the enduring tradition of the conflict of Good and Evil especially as it was presented by the ancient prophet, Zarathustra. This mythological conflict survived into modernity – consider World War II conceived by many as a symbolic battle of the virtuous Allies against the evil Fascists. More recently the  light and dark sides of the force in the Star Wars saga or the conflicts in the wizarding world of Harry Potter are fictional but powerful examples. Ultimately this conflict seems to be a  recurring paradigm of the human interpretation of the cosmos

It is no accident that Friedrich Nietzsche adopts the personage of Zarathustra in his masterpiece, Thus Spake Zarathustra, to present an alternative narrative. He challenges traditional values and the very  existence of God. In his synthesis, man must awaken from complacency and dependence on religious and state authority; embrace life, existence, and this world; and remake himself as an uberman (superman). Human weakness is manifest in  failing to accept the world as disordered and to recognize that sometimes what is considered evil turns out on closer examination to be good; that is good and evil are not absolute. Virtue is being true to oneself, through will to power, that is command of oneself and one’s future. It is also acceptance of the eternal recurrence, that is the complete embrace of that which is as if all that happens has happened before and will happen again an infinite number of times.1

In another of his masterpieces, Beyond Good and Evil, he also challenges the goodness of truth. To Nietzsche, the value of an idea has greater significance than its truth, if fact what is health-producing is truth. The question of will is not whether it is free or unfree, but whether it is strong or weak. The will to power may be more powerful than self-preservation, and man must get beyond existing valuations and live creatively, even dangerously. But despite all of his irreverence, he never loses his admiration for the psychological discipline of the saints.2

1Magill, Frank, Masterpieces of World Philosophy in Summary Form. Harper&Row Publishers, 1961, pages 686-696.

2Ibid, pages 686-703

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